Difference between revisions of "Universal suffrage"

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Latest revision as of 18:08, 14 September 2020

The table below lists the year that universal male and universal female suffrage were introduced into various nations. The list is non-exhaustive. In general nations that became independent during the 20th or 21st centuries granted universal suffrage to men and women at the same time. In nations that became independent during the 19th century men typically led women by a few years or decades in obtaining suffrage.

The following definitions are used in the table below:

Universal Male Suffrage: Men of the majority ethnic group are permitted one secret vote in free elections irrespective of possession of land, wealth, education levels or literacy levels where the minimum age is no higher than 21.

This differs from the definition used in the English Wikipedia as it considers universal male suffrage to begin when men of the majority ethnic group of any age received the franchise without further qualification. This definition would mean that in reality only a minority of men would have the franchise and make it appear that universal male suffrage was enacted earlier than it really was.

Universal Female Suffrage: Women are permitted to vote on the same basis as men.

It is universally accepted within psephology that some citizens may be deprived of suffrage while a jurisdiction can still be considered to have Universal Suffrage. Examples of citizens so deprived include military officers, citizens who are non-resident, citizens serving a term of imprisonment and citizens with serious criminal records.

If minority ethnic suffrage was counted as a requirement for universal male and female suffrage then the dates of universal suffrage would be much later for many nations. This would unfortunately obscure important information pertaining to universal suffrage and gender - that in general there was little or no delay between universal male and universal female suffrage of the majority ethnic group in most nations. The exclusion of minority ethnic suffrage in this manner is also consistent with the norms of psephology when considering universal male and universal female suffrage.

Country Universal Male Suffrage Universal Female Suffrage Difference (years) Notes
Afganistan 1977 1977 0
Algeria 1962 1962 0
Argentina 1853 1952 99
Armenia 1919 1921 2
Austria 1907 1918 11 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[1]
Australia 1901 1902 1 During the 1901 (inaugural) federal election women were eligible to vote if they were eligible to vote in their home state elections. As a result women in South Australia and Western Australia voted in the 1901 election. For Australian states see this article.
Azerbaijan 1919 1919 0
Bahamas 1958 1961 3
Bahrain 1973 1973 0
Belgium 1918 1948 30 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[2]
Bhutan 2008 2008 0
Bolivia 1956 1956 0
Brazil 1988 1988 0
Brunei - - - Brunei is an absolute monarchy and its citizens have never had the franchise.
Bulgaria 1945 1945 0
Burma/Myanmar 1990 1990 0
Canada 1920 1920 0 Chinese and aborigines were initially excluded regardless of gender. For Canadian provinces see this article.
Chile 1970 1970 0
Colombia 1936 1954 18
Czechia 1896 1918 22 As the First Czechoslovak Republic.
Denmark 1915 1915 0 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[3]
Dominica ? ? ?
Dominican Republic 2015 2015 0
Estonia 1917 1918 0
European Union 1979 1979 0
Finland 1906 1906 0
France 1848 1944 96 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[4]
Georgia 1919 1919 0
Germany 1871 1919 48
Ghana 1957 1957 0
Greece 1830 1952 122
Hong Kong 1991 1991 0
Hungary 1918 1918 0
India 1950 1950 0
Indonesia 1955 1955 0
Iran 1906 1963 57
Ireland 1918 1923 5
Israel 1948 1948 0
Italy 1918 1945 27 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[5]
Jamaica 1944 1944 0 The House of Representatives was established in 1944. Jamaica then gained increasing autonomy and finally became fully independent in 1962, with universal suffrage throughout.
Japan 1947 1947 0 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[6]
Kuwait 1962 2005 43
Latvia 1919 1919 0
Lebanon 1943 1943 0
Liberia 1946 1946 0
Liechtenstein 1984 1984 0
Lithuania 1922 1922 0
Luxembourg 1919 1919 0
Malaysia 1956 1957 1
Malta 1947 1947 0
Mexico 1917 1953 36
Netherlands 1971 1971 0 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[7]
New Zealand 1879 1893 14
Norway 1898 1913 15
Pakistan 1947 1947 0 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[8]
Peru 1979 1979 0
Philippines 1935 1937 0
Poland 1918 1918 0
Portugal 1974 1974 0
Qatar 2013 ? ?
Romania 1918 1948 30
Russia 1917 1917 0
Samoa 1990 1991 1
Saudia Arabia - - - Saudia Arabia is an absolute monarchy and its citizens have never had the franchise.
Serbia 1888 1945 57
South Africa 1931 1931 0
South Korea 1948 1948 0
Spain 1812 1933 121
Slovakia 1896 1918 22 As the First Czechoslovak Republic.
Sri Lanka 1931 1931 0
Sweden 1945 1945 0 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[9]
Switzerland 1848 1971 123 Switzerland is a federal state made up of Cantons. At a Canton level universal male and female suffrage was achieved at different times.
Taiwan 1992 1992 0
Thailand 1933 1933 0
Tunisia 1959 1959 0
Turkey 1946 1946 0 The first multi-party elections in the country were in 1946.[10]
United Arab Emirates - - - Limited suffrage only for all adults. Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[11]
United Kingdom 1918 1928 10 Women 30 or older gained the franchise in 1918 if they lived in a house, had a husband who did or owned property worth a certain amount.
United States 1870 1920 50 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[12]
Uruguay 1918 1918 0
Zimbabwe ? 1919 ?

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References