Universal suffrage in Canada

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Canada is a federal state. On joining federation the provinces ceded certain powers to the federal government but retained other powers for themselves. As a result, suffrage was granted at different times by Canadian provinces and the federal government.

The following definitions are used in the table below:

Universal Male Suffrage: Men of the majority or predominant ethnic group are permitted one secret vote in free elections irrespective of possession of land, wealth, education levels or literacy levels where the minimum age is no higher than 21. The table below has an incomplete list of years in which universal male suffrage was granted due to a dearth of sources on the subject.

Universal Female Suffrage: Women are permitted to vote on the same basis as men.

It is universally accepted within psephology that some citizens may be deprived of suffrage while a jurisdiction can still be considered to have Universal Suffrage. Examples of citizens so deprived include military officers, citizens who are non-resident, citizens serving a term of imprisonment and citizens with serious criminal records.

Jurisdiction Universal Male Suffrage Universal Female Suffrage Difference (years) Notes
Canada 1920 1920 0 Chinese and aborigines were initially excluded regardless of gender.
Alberta 1916
British Colombia 1917
Manitoba 1916
New Brunswick 1919
Newfoundland 1925 1925 0 Newfoundland did not become part of Canada until 1949.
Nova Scotia 1918
Ontario 1917
Prince Edward Island 1902 1922 20
Quebec 1940
Saskatchewan 1916

See Also