Universal suffrage in the United States

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As its name suggests the United States is a federal state. On joining federation the states ceded certain powers to the federal government but retained other powers for themselves. As a result, suffrage was granted at different times by states and the federal government.

The following definitions are used in the table below:

Universal Male Suffrage: Men of the majority or predominant ethnic group are permitted one secret vote in free elections irrespective of possession of land, wealth, education levels or literacy levels where the minimum age is no higher than 21.

Universal Female Suffrage: Women are permitted to vote on the same basis as men.

It is universally accepted within psephology that some citizens may be deprived of suffrage while a jurisdiction can still be considered to have Universal Suffrage. Examples of citizens so deprived include military officers, citizens who are non-resident, citizens serving a term of imprisonment and citizens with serious criminal records.

Jurisdiction Universal Male Suffrage Universal Female Suffrage Difference (years) Notes
United States 1870 1920 50 Information in Wikipedia differs from that presented here due to a different definition for Universal Male Suffrage.[1]
Alabama 1893 1920 27
Arizona 1891 1912 21
Arkansas 1891 1917 26
California 1891 1911 20
Colorado 1891 1893 2
Connecticut 1909 1920 11
Delaware 1891 1920 29
Florida 1895 1920 25
Georgia 1922 1922 0
Idaho 1891 1896 5
Illinois 1891 1913
Indiana 1889 1919 30
Iowa 1892 1919
Kansas 1893 1912
Kentucky 1882 1920
Louisiana 1896 1920
Maine 1891 1919
Maryland 1892 1920
Massachusetts 1888 1920
Michigan 1891 1918
Minnesota 1891 1919
Mississippi 1890 1920
Missouri 1891 1919
Montana 1889 1914
Nebraska 1891 1917
Nevada 1891 1914
New Hampshire 1891 1920
New Jersey 1911 1920
New Mexico 1912 1920
New York 1895 1917
North Carolina 1929 1929 Later than federal elections due to the late introduction of the secret ballot.
North Dakota 1891 1917
Ohio 1891 1919
Oklahoma 1890 1918
Oregon 1891 1912
Pennsylvania 1891 1920
Rhode Island 1889 1917
South Carolina 1950 1950 Later than federal elections due to the late introduction of the secret ballot.
South Dakota 1891 1918
Tennessee 1921 1921 Later than federal elections due to the late introduction of the secret ballot.
Texas 1905 1918
Utah 1896 1896
Vermont 1890 1920
Virginia 1894 1920
Washington 1890 1910
West Virginia 1891 1920
Wisconsin 1894 1919
Wyoming 1890 1890

See Also

References