Difference between revisions of "John Money"

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{{short description|Psychologist, sexologist and author}}
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'''John William Money''' (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a New Zealand-American psychologist, sexologist and author specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender. He was one of the first researchers to publish theories on the influence of societal constructs of "[[gender]]" on individual formation of [[gender identity]]. Money introduced the terms ''gender identity'', ''[[gender role]]'' and ''[[sexual orientation]]'' and popularised the term ''[[paraphilia]]''.<ref>https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pRcWBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA45</ref>
{{For|the aeronaut|John Money (aeronaut)}}
 
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{{Infobox scientist
 
| name              = John Money
 
| image            = John_Money.jpg
 
| caption          =
 
| birth_name        = John William Money
 
| birth_date        = {{Birth date|df=yes|1921|7|8}}
 
| birth_place      = [[Morrinsville]], New Zealand
 
| death_date        = {{Death date and age|2006|7|7|1921|7|8|df=yes}}
 
| death_place      = [[Towson, Maryland]], U.S.
 
| residence        =
 
| citizenship      =
 
| ethnicity        =
 
| fields            = [[Psychology]]
 
| workplaces        =
 
| alma_mater        = [[Victoria University of Wellington]]
 
| doctoral_advisor  =
 
| academic_advisors =
 
| doctoral_students =
 
| notable_students  =
 
| known_for        =
 
| awards            =
 
| signature        =
 
| footnotes        =
 
}}
 
'''John William Money''' (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a [[New Zealand American]] [[psychologist]], [[Sexology|sexologist]] and author specializing in research into [[sexual identity]] and [[Sex determination and differentiation (human)|biology of gender]]. He was one of the first researchers to publish theories on the influence of societal constructs of "[[gender]]" on individual formation of [[gender identity]]. Money introduced the terms ''gender identity'', ''[[gender role]]'' and ''[[sexual orientation]]'' and popularised the term ''[[paraphilia]]''.<ref name="John Money, Ph.D" /><ref name=":0">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pRcWBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA45|title=Perverse Psychology: The pathologization of sexual violence and transgenderism|last=Tosh|first=Jemma|date=2014-07-25|publisher=Routledge|isbn=9781317635444|language=en}}</ref>
 
  
Recent academic studies have criticized Money's work in many respects, particularly in regard to his involvement with the involuntary sex-reassignment of the child [[David Reimer]],<ref name="diamond">{{cite journal|last1=Diamond|first1=M|last2=Sigmundson|first2=HK|date=|year=1997|title=Sex reassignment at birth. Long-term review and clinical implications|url=http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1997-sex-reassignment.html|journal=Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine|volume=151|issue=3|pages=298–304|doi=10.1001/archpedi.1997.02170400084015|pmid=9080940|via=}}</ref> his forcing this child and his brother to simulate sex acts which Money photographed{{sfn|Colapinto|2001b}} and the adult suicides of both brothers.{{sfn|Colapinto|2001b}}
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Recent academic studies have criticized Money's work in many respects, particularly in regard to his involvement with the involuntary sex-reassignment of the child [[David Reimer]]<ref>http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1997-sex-reassignment.html</ref>, his forcing this child and his brother to simulate sex acts which Money photographed and the adult suicides of both brothers.
  
Money's writing has been translated into many languages and includes around 2,000 articles, books, chapters and reviews. He received around 65 honors, awards and degrees in his lifetime.<ref name="John Money, Ph.D">{{cite journal|last1=Ehrhardt|first1=Anke A.|title=John Money, Ph.D.|journal=The Journal of Sex Research|date=August 2007|volume=44|issue=3|pages=223–224|jstor=20620298|doi=10.1080/00224490701580741|pmid=3050136}}</ref> He was also a patron of many famous New Zealand artists, such as [[Rita Angus]] and [[Theo Schoon]].
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Money's writing has been translated into many languages and includes around 2,000 articles, books, chapters and reviews. He received around 65 honors, awards and degrees in his lifetime. He was also a patron of many famous New Zealand artists, such as Rita Angus and Theo Schoon.
  
 
==Biography==
 
==Biography==
Money was born in [[Morrinsville]], New Zealand, to a family of English and Welsh descent.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.sexualhealth.umn.edu/education/john-money/bio |title=John William Money, PhD, 1921–2006 | work = Program in Human Sexuality, Department of Family Medicine and Community Health | publisher = University of Minnesota |accessdate=24 July 2015 |url-status=dead |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20150724204551/http://www.sexualhealth.umn.edu/education/john-money/bio |archivedate=24 July 2015 |df=dmy-all }}</ref> He initially studied [[psychology]] at [[Victoria University of Wellington]],<ref name="nzhobit">{{cite news | date = 10 July 2006 | url = http://www.nzherald.co.nz/category/story.cfm?c_id=204&ObjectID=10390550 | title = Kiwi sexologist dies in US hospital | work = [[The New Zealand Herald]] | url-status = dead | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20070930012155/http://www.nzherald.co.nz/category/story.cfm?c_id=204&ObjectID=10390550 | archive-date = 30 September 2007}}</ref> graduating with a double master's degree in psychology and education in 1944.<ref>{{cite web|title=John Money, PhD|url=http://www.thefreelibrary.com/John+Money,+Ph.D.-a0168586760|publisher=Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality|accessdate=15 April 2008}}</ref>
 
 
Money was a junior member of the psychology faculty at the [[University of Otago]] in Dunedin. Author [[Janet Frame]] attended some of Money's classes at the University of Otago as part of her teacher training. In October 1945, after Frame wrote an essay mentioning her thoughts of suicide,<ref name=Angel>{{Cite encyclopedia |url=https://teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/6f1/frame-janet-paterson/print|title=Frame, Janet Paterson | first = Patrick | last = Evans | encyclopedia = Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand | year = 2010}}</ref> John Money facilitated Frame's committal to the psychiatric ward at Dunedin Public Hospital, leading to eight years in psychiatric institutions.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books/about/An_Angel_At_My_Table.html?id=JkIoBgAAQBAJ|title=An Angel At My Table |last=Janet|first=Frame|publisher =Little, Brown Book Group | date = 2015 | isbn = 9780349006697}}</ref> In Frame's autobiography, ''An Angel At My Table'', Money is referred to as John Forrest.<ref name=Angel />
 
 
In 1947, at the age of 26, he emigrated to the United States to study at the Psychiatric Institute of the [[University of Pittsburgh]]. He left Pittsburgh and earned his PhD from [[Harvard University]] in 1952. He was married briefly in the 1950s but had no children.
 
 
Money was an early supporter of New Zealand's arts, both literary and visual.
 
  
 
Money proposed and developed several theories and related terminology, including [[gender identity]], [[gender role]],<ref name="diamond2">{{cite journal | last = Diamond | first = Milton | year = 2004 | title = Sex, gender, and identity over the years: a changing perspective | journal = Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America | volume = 13 | issue = 3 | pages = 591–607 | pmid = 15183375 | url = http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/historical/OverTheYears.htm | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081203153327/http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/historical/OverTheYears.htm | archive-date=3 December 2008 | doi = 10.1016/j.chc.2004.02.008 }}</ref> gender-identity/role and [[lovemap]]. He popularized the term ''paraphilia'' (appearing in the [[DSM-III]], which would later replace ''perversions'') and introduced the term ''sexual orientation'' in place of ''sexual preference'', arguing that attraction is not necessarily a matter of free choice.<ref name="John Money, Ph.D"/><ref name=":0" />
 
Money proposed and developed several theories and related terminology, including [[gender identity]], [[gender role]],<ref name="diamond2">{{cite journal | last = Diamond | first = Milton | year = 2004 | title = Sex, gender, and identity over the years: a changing perspective | journal = Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America | volume = 13 | issue = 3 | pages = 591–607 | pmid = 15183375 | url = http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/historical/OverTheYears.htm | archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20081203153327/http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/online_artcls/historical/OverTheYears.htm | archive-date=3 December 2008 | doi = 10.1016/j.chc.2004.02.008 }}</ref> gender-identity/role and [[lovemap]]. He popularized the term ''paraphilia'' (appearing in the [[DSM-III]], which would later replace ''perversions'') and introduced the term ''sexual orientation'' in place of ''sexual preference'', arguing that attraction is not necessarily a matter of free choice.<ref name="John Money, Ph.D"/><ref name=":0" />
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*Money, John. (1999). ''The Lovemap Guidebook: A Definitive Statement''. Continuum. {{ISBN|0-8264-1203-3}}
 
*Money, John. (1999). ''The Lovemap Guidebook: A Definitive Statement''. Continuum. {{ISBN|0-8264-1203-3}}
  
==See also==
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==See Also==
 +
 
 
*''[[Intersexion]]'' - the impact of Money's theories on the treatment of intersex people is featured in this documentary
 
*''[[Intersexion]]'' - the impact of Money's theories on the treatment of intersex people is featured in this documentary
  
==References==
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==External Links==
{{Reflist}}
 
 
 
==Further reading==
 
*Ehrhardt, Anke A. 'John Money, Ph.D.' ''[[Journal of Sex Research]]'' '''44.3''' (2007): 223–224.
 
*{{cite book | last1 = Downing | first1 = Lisa |authorlink1=Lisa Downing | last2 = Morland | first2 = Iain |authorlink2=Iain Morland | last3 = Sullivan | first3 = Nikki | title = Fuckology: Critical Essays on John Money's Diagnostic Concepts | date = November 26, 2014 | publisher = [[University of Chicago Press]] | location = [[Chicago|Chicago, Illinois]]}}
 
*{{cite book | last1 =Goldie | first1 = Terry | title = The Man Who Invented Gender: Engaging the Ideas of John Money | date = 2014 | publisher = [[University of British Columbia Press]] | location = [[Vancouver|Vancouver, British Columbia]]}}
 
  
==External links==
 
{{Wikiquote}}
 
 
*{{IMDb name|1645119}}
 
*{{IMDb name|1645119}}
 
*[http://www.indiana.edu/~kinsey/library/money.html John Money Collection] via the [[Kinsey Institute]]
 
*[http://www.indiana.edu/~kinsey/library/money.html John Money Collection] via the [[Kinsey Institute]]
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* Joanne Silberner, [https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5549668 The Legacy of Sex Researcher John Money], [[NPR]]
 
* Joanne Silberner, [https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=5549668 The Legacy of Sex Researcher John Money], [[NPR]]
  
{{Authority control}}
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== References  ==
  
{{DEFAULTSORT:Money, John}}
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[[Category: Biographies]]
[[Category:1921 births]]
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[[Category: New Zealand]]
[[Category:2006 deaths]]
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[[category: United States]]
[[Category:20th-century New Zealand medical doctors]]
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[[Category: Wikipedia]]
[[Category:American sexologists]]
 
[[Category:Deaths from Parkinson's disease]]
 
[[Category:Harvard University alumni]]
 
[[Category:Intersex and medicine]]
 
[[Category:Johns Hopkins University faculty]]
 
[[Category:New Zealand art collectors]]
 
[[Category:New Zealand people of Welsh descent]]
 
[[Category:New Zealand people of English descent]]
 
[[Category:New Zealand psychiatrists]]
 
[[Category:New Zealand scientists]]
 
[[Category:People from Morrinsville]]
 
[[Category:People involved in scientific misconduct incidents]]
 
[[Category:Transgender studies academics]]
 
[[Category:University of Pittsburgh alumni]]
 
[[Category:University of Otago faculty]]
 
[[Category:Victoria University of Wellington alumni]]
 

Latest revision as of 12:46, 31 July 2020

John William Money (8 July 1921 – 7 July 2006) was a New Zealand-American psychologist, sexologist and author specializing in research into sexual identity and biology of gender. He was one of the first researchers to publish theories on the influence of societal constructs of "gender" on individual formation of gender identity. Money introduced the terms gender identity, gender role and sexual orientation and popularised the term paraphilia.[1]

Recent academic studies have criticized Money's work in many respects, particularly in regard to his involvement with the involuntary sex-reassignment of the child David Reimer[2], his forcing this child and his brother to simulate sex acts which Money photographed and the adult suicides of both brothers.

Money's writing has been translated into many languages and includes around 2,000 articles, books, chapters and reviews. He received around 65 honors, awards and degrees in his lifetime. He was also a patron of many famous New Zealand artists, such as Rita Angus and Theo Schoon.

Biography

Money proposed and developed several theories and related terminology, including gender identity, gender role,[3] gender-identity/role and lovemap. He popularized the term paraphilia (appearing in the DSM-III, which would later replace perversions) and introduced the term sexual orientation in place of sexual preference, arguing that attraction is not necessarily a matter of free choice.[4][5]

Money was a professor of pediatrics and medical psychology at Johns Hopkins University from 1951 until his death. He also established the Johns Hopkins Gender Identity Clinic in 1965 along with Claude Migeon who was the head of pediatric endocrinology at Johns Hopkins. The hospital began performing sexual reassignment surgery in 1966.[6] At Johns Hopkins, Money was also involved with the Sexual Behaviors Unit, which ran studies on sex-reassignment surgery. He received the Magnus Hirschfeld Medal in 2002 from the German Society for Social-Scientific Sexuality Research.

In 2002, as his Parkinson's disease worsened, Money donated a substantial portion of his art collection to the Eastern Southland Art Gallery in Gore, New Zealand.[7] In 2003, the New Zealand Prime Minister, Helen Clark, opened the John Money wing at the Eastern Southland Gallery.[8]

Money died 7 July 2006, one day before his 85th birthday, in Towson, Maryland,[9] of complications from Parkinson's disease.[10]

Sexological books

Money was the co-editor of a 1969 book "Transsexualism and Sex Reassignment", which helped bring more acceptance to sexual reassignment surgery and transgender individuals.

Sexual identity, gender identity and gender roles

Template:More citations needed section Template:Further Money introduced numerous definitions related to gender in journal articles in the 1950s, many of them as a result of his studies of Hermaphroditism.

Money's definition of gender is based on his understanding of sex differences among human beings. According to Money, the fact that one sex produces ova and the other sex produces sperm is the irreducible criterion of sex difference. However, there are other sex-derivative differences that follow in the wake of this primary dichotomy.

These differences involve the way urine is expelled from the human body and other questions of sexual dimorphism. According to Money's theory, sex-adjunctive differences are typified by the smaller size of females and their problems in moving around while nursing infants. This then makes it more likely that the males do the roaming and hunting.

Sex-arbitrary differences are those that are purely conventional: for example, color selection (baby blue for boys, pink for girls). Some of the latter differences apply to life activities, such as career opportunities for men versus women.

Finally, Money created the now-common term gender role which he differentiated from the concept of the more traditional terminology sex role. This grew out of his studies of hermaphrodites. According to Money, the genitalia and erotic sexual roles were now, by his definition, to be included under the more general term "gender role" including all the non-genital and non-erotic activities that are defined by the conventions of society to apply to males or to females.

In his studies of hermaphrodites, Money found that there are six variables that define sex. While in the average person all six would line up unequivocally as either all "male" or "female", in hermaphrodites any one or more than one of these could be inconsistent with the others, leading to various kinds of anomalies. In his seminal 1955 paper he defined these factors as:[11]

  1. assigned sex and sex of rearing
  2. external genital morphology
  3. internal reproductive structures
  4. hormonal and secondary sex characteristics
  5. gonadal sex
  6. chromosomal sex

and added, Template:Quote

He then defined gender role as Template:Quote

Money made the concept of gender a broader, more inclusive concept than one of masculine/feminine. For him, gender included not only one's status as a man or a woman, but was also a matter of personal recognition, social assignment, or legal determination; not only on the basis of one's genitalia but also on the basis of somatic and behavioral criteria that go beyond genital differences.

In 1972, Money presented his theories in Man & Woman, Boy & Girl, a college-level, mainstream textbook. The book featured David Reimer (see below) as an example of gender reassignment.

Gay, Straight and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation

Template:Confusing section In this book, Money develops a conception of "bodymind".[12] "Bodymind" is a way for scientists, in developing a science about sexuality, to move on from the platitudes of dichotomy between nature versus nurture, innate versus the acquired, biological versus the social, and psychological versus the physiological. He suggests that all of these capitalize on the ancient, pre-Platonic, pre-biblical conception of body versus the mind, and the physical versus the spiritual. In coining the term "bodymind", in this sense, Money wishes to move beyond these very ingrained principles of our folk or vernacular psychology.

Money also develops a view of "Concepts of Determinism" which, transcultural, transhistorical, and universal, all people have in common, sexologically or otherwise.[13] These include pairbondage, troopbondage, abidance, ycleptance, foredoomance, with these coping strategies: adhibition (engagement), inhibition, explication.

Money suggests that the concept of "threshold"[14] – the release or inhibition of sexual (or other) behavior – is most useful for sex research as a substitute for any concept of motivation. Moreover, it confers the distinct advantage of having continuity and unity to what would otherwise be a highly disparate and varied field of research. It also allows for the classification of sexual behavior. For Money, the concept of threshold has great value because of the wide spectrum to which it applies. "It allows one to think developmentally or longitudinally, in terms of stages or experiences that are programmed serially, or hierarchically, or cybernetically (i.e. regulated by mutual feedback)."[12]

Controversies

Sex reassignment of David Reimer

Template:MainDuring his professional life, Money was respected as an expert on sexual behavior, especially known for his views that gender was learned rather than innate. However, it was later revealed that his most famous case of David Reimer was fundamentally flawed.[15] In 1966, a botched circumcision left eight-month-old Reimer without a penis. Money persuaded the baby's parents that sex reassignment surgery would be in Reimer's best interest. At the age of 22 months, Reimer underwent an orchiectomy, in which his testicles were surgically removed. He was reassigned to be raised as female and given the name Brenda. Money further recommended hormone treatment, to which the parents agreed. Money then recommended a surgical procedure to create an artificial vagina, which the parents refused. Money published a number of papers reporting the reassignment as successful.

During subsequent appointments with Reimer and Reimer's twin brother Brian, Money forced the two to rehearse sexual acts, with David playing the bottom role as his brother "[pressed] his crotch against" David's buttocks. Money also forced the two children to strip for "genital inspections", occasionally taking photos. Money justified these acts by claiming that "childhood 'sexual rehearsal playTemplate:' " was important for a "healthy adult gender identity".Template:Sfn

For several years, Money reported on Reimer's progress as the "John/Joan case", describing apparently successful female gender development and using this case to support the feasibility of sex reassignment and surgical reconstruction even in non-intersex cases. Notes by a former student at Money's laboratory state that, during the yearly follow-up visits, Reimer's parents routinely lied to staff about the success of the procedure. Reimer's twin brother, Brian, later developed schizophrenia.[16]

File:As Nature Made Him.jpg
David Reimer as 'Brenda', seen on the cover of As Nature Made Him by John Colapinto.

David Reimer's case came to international attention in 1997 when he told his story to Milton Diamond, an academic sexologist, who persuaded Reimer to allow him to report the outcome in order to dissuade physicians from treating other infants similarly.[17] Soon after, Reimer went public with his story, and John Colapinto published a widely disseminated and influential account in Rolling Stone magazine in December 1997.[18] This was later expanded into The New York Times best-selling biography As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised as a Girl (2000),Template:Sfn in which Colapinto described how—contrary to Money's reports—when living as Brenda, Reimer did not identify as a girl. He was ostracized and bullied by peers (who dubbed him "cavewoman"),[19]Template:Sfn and neither frilly dresses,Template:Sfnm nor female hormones made him feel female.

On July 1, 2002, Brian was found dead from an overdose of antidepressants. On May 4, 2004, after suffering years of severe depression, financial instability, and marital troubles,[20] David committed suicide by shooting himself in the head with a sawed-off shotgun at the age of 38. Reimer's parents have stated that Money's methodology was responsible for the deaths of both of their sons.[21]

Money argued that media response to the exposé was due to right-wing media bias and "the antifeminist movement." He said his detractors believed "masculinity and femininity are built into the genes so women should get back to the mattress and the kitchen".[22] However, intersex activists also criticized Money, stating that the unreported failure had led to the surgical reassignment of thousands of infants as a matter of policy.[23] Privately, Money was mortified by the case, colleagues said, and as a rule did not discuss it.[24] Money's own views also developed and changed over the years.[25][26]Template:Clarify

Pedophilia opinions

John Money was critical in debates on chronophilias, especially pedophilia.[27] He stated that both sexual researchers and the public do not make distinctions between affectional pedophilia and sadistic pedophilia. Money asserted that affectional pedophilia was about love and not sex.

Template:Quote

Money held the view that affectional pedophilia is caused by a surplus of parental love that became erotic, and is not a behavioral disorder. Rather, he took the position that heterosexuality is another example of a societal and therefore superficial, ideological concept.[28][29]

Works

  • Money, John. (1952). Hermaphroditism: An Inquiry into the Nature of a Human Paradox. Thesis (Ph.D.), Harvard University.
  • Money, John, and Patricia Tucker. (1975). Sexual Signatures on Being a Man or a Woman. Little Brown & Co: Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1986). Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity. New York: Irvington. Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1988) Gay, Straight, and In-Between: The Sexology of Erotic Orientation. New York: Oxford University Press. Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1989). Vandalized Lovemaps: Paraphilic Outcome of 7 Cases in Pediatric Sexology. Prometheus Books: Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1994). Sex Errors of the Body and Related Syndromes: A Guide to Counseling Children, Adolescents, and Their Families , 2nd ed. Baltimore: P.H. Brooks Publishing Company. Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1995). Gendermaps: Social Constructionism, Feminism, and Sexosophical History. New York: Continuum. Template:ISBN
  • Money, John, and Anke Ehrhardt. (1996). Man & Woman, Boy & Girl: Gender Identity from Conception to Maturity. Northvale, N.J.: Jason Aronson. Originally published: 1972 Template:ISBN
  • Money, John. (1999). The Lovemap Guidebook: A Definitive Statement. Continuum. Template:ISBN

See Also

  • Intersexion - the impact of Money's theories on the treatment of intersex people is featured in this documentary

External Links

References

  1. https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pRcWBAAAQBAJ&pg=PA45
  2. http://www.hawaii.edu/PCSS/biblio/articles/1961to1999/1997-sex-reassignment.html
  3. Template:Cite journal
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named John Money, Ph.D
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0
  6. Template:Cite journal
  7. Template:Cite news
  8. Template:Cite press release
  9. Template:Cite news
  10. Template:Cite news
  11. Template:Cite journal
  12. 12.0 12.1 Money 1988, p. 116.
  13. Money 1988, pp. 114-119.
  14. Money 1988, p. 115.
  15. Template:Cite episode
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. Template:Cite journal
  18. Template:Cite journal
  19. Template:Cite news
  20. Template:Cite news
  21. "Born a Boy, Raised as a Girl" Documentary, The Learning Channel
  22. Walker, Jesse (24 May 2004). The Death of David Reimer: A tale of sex, science, and abuse. Reason
  23. Who was David Reimer (also, sadly, known as "John/Joan")? via Intersex Society of North America. Retrieved 10 July 2006.
  24. Carey, Benedict (11 July 2006). John William Money, 84, Sexual Identity Researcher, Dies, New York Times
  25. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named diamond
  26. Template:Cite journal
  27. Template:Cite journal
  28. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named paidika
  29. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named The True Story of John / Joan